Research into Same-Language Subtitling
Welcome to our research page where you can find lots of information and studies about subtitling and literacy.
The first section is a bit more descriptive and reads more like a story (but with the necessary academic references included).
The second section is a technical sprint through the academic research with lots of facts and references.
Feel free to choose your preference…
At the very bottom, you’ll find a list of academic papers.
Version 1: the TOTS story
Are you sitting comfortably? We need to talk about subtitles. Grab a cup of tea and a biscuit.
We’ve got an exam question for you:
Does having subtitles appear on children’s TV screens improve childrens’ literacy?
(after all, that’s what our whole campaign is about)
If we can prove this, we should look at practical ways to ensure that all children benefit from subtitles.
If the answer is that we can’t prove this works, we should stop and find another way to help.
For the answer of proof to be “yes” three things need to be answered in the affirmative:
- Do children actually read the subtitles when presented on screen?
- Do they or their parents keep the subtitles on rather than just turning them off again?
- And then the most complex question; does the presence of subtitles impact learning in ANY of the following areas?
- Listening Comprehension
- Language learning in general
Do children actually read the subtitles when presented on screen?
Reading along with same language subtitles is automatic amongst both adults and children. This is actually one you can try at home – try ignoring the subtitles, you can’t!
In a landmark study d’Ydewalle et al. (1991) first proved that subtitles cannot be ignored and viewers automatically exhibit reading behaviour. A later study, d’Ydewalle et al. (2007) confirmed that both children and adults exhibit automatic reading behaviour. .
d’Ydewalle, G., Praet, C., Verfaillie, K., & Rensbergen, J. V. (1991). Watching Subtitled Television: Automatic Reading Behavior. Communication Research, 18(5), 650–666.
d’Ydewalle, G., De Bruycker, W. (2007). Eye movements of children and adults while reading television subtitles. European Psychologist: the journal for psychology in Europe, 12, 196-205.
Gery d’Ydewalle is a renowned scholar. Contact details at: https://www.kuleuven.be/wieiswie/en/person/00015362
Do children or their parents keep the subtitles on, rather than just turning them off again?
The 2020/21 study from NESTA which involved 450,000 children watching videos showed that 98% of viewers did not change the setting and there were zero complaints at having subtitles on screen. 40% of children already watch BBC iPlayer with the subtitles on without complaint.
The NESTA/GCSEPod research summary is here
Elspeth Kirkman from the Behavioural Insights Team currently seconded to NESTA.
Does the presence of subtitles positively impact learning?
In the US, Linebarger (2001) found that TV captions ‘evoke efforts to read’ among children, which then helps children recognise words and grasp story elements.
Later, Linebarger et al.’s (2010) explored the impact of existing captions on children’s educational TV programming on the reading skills of 70 2nd and 3rd Grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. A treatment group of 35 children (8 at risk, 13 at moderate risk, and 14 not at risk) watched six 30-minute videos with captions. A comparable control group of 35 children watched the same videos without captions. Captions benefited the reading skills of children at risk the most. Linebarger et al. concluded that using captions for young at-risk readers can provide effective supplemental practice in word recognition, content comprehension and code-related literacy skills.
Parkhill and Davey (2014) reviewed a series of studies conducted in New Zealand and Australia, as part of an ‘Audio Visual Achievement in Literacy, Language and Learning’ (AVAILLL) program. The structured program conducted in classrooms by teachers used a combination of popular films (with SLS) based on books and prescribed activities to improve reading and language ability among children in Years 5-10 (ages 10-15). It is not strictly limited to SLS exposure on media and assumes basic reading skills at Grade 4 level. AVAILLL’s impacts were researched on literacy and language gains among school children from low-income households, including from Maori and Pasifika backgrounds. The results from five studies show statistically significant gains for both comprehension and vocabulary, particularly for diverse and low achieving students. According to Parkhill and Davey, same language subtitling (SLS) evokes unavoidable reading engagement automatic practice.
Longitudinal correlational studies in India have explored the impact of SLS exposure on the reading skills of weak readers by implementing it on mainstream TV. Large-scale pilots of SLS on existing film songs on TV in eight major languages have found first that similar to good readers, weak readers exposed to content with SLS also try to read along automatically, and second, that regular SLS exposure results in measurable improvement of reading skills (Kothari et al., 2004; Kothari et al., 2002). After three to five years of regular exposure to SLS, most weak readers advance to functional, and many to fluent, reading ability (Kothari and Bandyopadhyay, 2014). The earlier a child is exposed to SLS at home, concurrent with primary schooling when akshara (the basic orthographic unit in Indic languages) are introduced, the stronger the child’s reading skills become. While the reading skills of schoolchildren in grades one to three improve most effectively from SLS, adults benefit too, but less efficiently with age.
So let’s go back to that exam question – It’s proven that children will automatically read subtitles on TV. It’s proven that the overwhelming majority won’t turn them off (if they were on by default) and it’s proven that showing those subtitles will directly lead to an improvement in children’s literacy, language and reading skills.
Further research (which you can read below in the more technical version of this tale) will show that this has an even greater impact on those struggling to read – which also correlates to lower income families.
We’ll leave the final word on this to Lord Foster of Bath who puts it rather nicely:
“Once in a blue moon an idea comes along that just blows you away with its sheer simple brilliance. If ever there was a no-brainer, this is it”.
Linebarger, D. L. (2001). Learning to read from television: The effects of using captions and narration. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 288–298.
Linebarger, D., Piotrowski, J. T., & Greenwood, C. R. (2010). On-screen print: The role of captions as a supplemental literacy tool. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(2), 148–167.
Parkhill, F. & Davey, R. (2014). ‘I used to read one page in two minutes and now I am reading ten’: Using popular film subtitles to enhance literacy outcomes. Literacy Learning: The Middle Years, 22(2), 28-33.
Kothari, Brij and Tathagata Bandyopadhyay (2014). Same Language Subtitling of Bollywood film songs on TV: Effects on literacy. Information Technologies & International Development, 10(4), 31–47.
Kothari, Brij, Avinash Pandey, and Amita Chudgar (2004). Reading Out of the “Idiot Box”: SameLanguage Subtitling on Television in India. Information Technologies and International Development, vol. 2(1): 23-44.
Kothari, Brij, Joe Takeda, Ashok Joshi, and Avinash Pandey (2002). Same Language Subtitling: A Butterfly for Literacy? International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(1): 55-66.
Specific studies of the impact on vocabulary:
NEUMAN, S. B., & KOSKINEN, P. (1992). Captioned television as comprehensible input: Effects of incidental word learning from context for language minority students. Reading Research Quarterly, 27, 94-106. See abstract.
Koolstra, C.M., Beentjes, J.W.J. Children’s vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language through watching subtitled television programs at home. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47, 51–60 (1999). See abstract.
Bird, S. A., & Williams, J. N. (2002). The effect of bimodal input on implicit and explicit memory: An investigation into the benefits of within-language subtitling. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23(4), 509-533. See abstract.
Specific studies of the impact on listening comprehension:
HUANG , H., & ESKEY, D. E. (1999). The effects of closed-captioned television on the listening comprehension of intermediate English as a second language (ESL) students. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 28, 75-96. See abstract.
Hayati, A., & Mohmedi, F. (2011). The effect of films with and without subtitles on listening comprehension of EFL learners. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42, 181-192. See abstract.
Amin Saed, Arash Yazdani, Mohsen Askary. Film Subtitles and Listening Comprehension Ability of Intermediate EFL Learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and Translation, Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 29-3. See abstract.
Studies on language learning in general:
Anca Daniela Frumuselu, Sven De Maeyer, Vincent Donche, María del Mar Gutiérrez Colon Plana, Television series inside the EFL classroom: Bridging the gap between teaching and learning informal language through subtitles, Linguistics and Education,
Volume 32, Part B, 2015, Pages 107-117. See abstract.
Also when searching through journals you might want to use the following terms that are often used in this field: Same Language Subtitling (SLS) are “intralingual” or “bimodal” subtitles or “captions.” These are the search terms to use to find research studies. A massive bibliography on intralingual subtitles (what we call SLS) is here: https://www.fremdsprache-und-spielfilm.de/Captions.htm
Dr Brij Kothari, Indian Institute of Management or Dr Deborah Nichols (nee Linebarger), Purdue University
The More Academic Version!
Same Language Subtitling (SLS) is the idea of subtitling (or captioning) audio-visual content in the ‘same’ language as the audio. Word for word, what you hear is what you read, in perfect timing.
There is a rich body of evidence supporting the impact of Same Language Subtitling (SLS) or captioning for language learning (e.g., Robert Vanderplank’s work). There is strong and growing evidence that SLS also improves reading skills. While either of these impacts would provide a strong rationale for SLS, the evidence for both, not to mention media access, makes SLS compelling.
The most sustained push for SLS on TV for reading literacy has been in India, through research, sustained TV pilots and policy (Kothari and Bandyopadhyay, 2020; forthcoming Stanford Social Innovation Review; available on request). However, the positive impact of subtitle use on reading literacy has also been affirmed in several English and non-English speaking countries. Taken together, these studies consistently prove that exposure to subtitles which match the audio directly, contribute to reading development and language acquisition.
How do subtitles aid reading?
Subtitles cause automatic reading behaviour among children and adults.
A key finding of eye-tracking research on subtitling, which studies the automatic reading behaviour of children and adults, is that viewers who have some decoding ability – even partial letter-to-sound correspondence – just cannot ignore the subtitles and will exhibit automatic reading responses.
The Belgian professor Géry van Outryve d’Ydewalle is considered to be the pioneer in proving that subtitles will be read inescapably and automatically. His list of publications is voluminous: http://lirias.kuleuven.be/cv?Username=U0015362. In one particular study confirming this, American subjects watched an American movie with English subtitles. Despite their lack of familiarity with subtitles, they spent considerable time in the subtitled area of the screen. As such, subtitle reading was found not to be due to habit formation from long-term experience. In the second part of the experiment, a movie in Dutch with Dutch subtitles was shown to Dutch-speaking subjects. They also looked extensively at the subtitles, suggesting that reading subtitles is preferred because of efficiency in following and understanding the movie. Evidence of such eye-tracking enables us to attribute possible learning outcomes to the subtitles.
The key to reading fluency is practice
An important learning from the neuro-cognitive sciences is that neurons that fire together, wire together. For proficient reading, they need to fire sufficiently and over a long enough period of time to achieve automaticity. As Frey and Fisher (2010) state, “When we experience something, neurons fire. Repeated firings lead to physical changes [in the brain] that, over time and with repetition, become more permanent.” They further point out that “The challenge, of course, with automaticity is to not allow repetition to turn into a rut.”
The key to reading practice is high-interest content
SLS rides content that is by definition interesting to the viewer. This is a critical point. MIT’s John Gabrieli, a leader in the field of cognitive neurosciences, explains how emotion and motivation “propel learning very powerfully.” SLS of audio-visual content that is interesting to children fires a steady stream of consistent grapheme-phoneme associations in the brain that already knows the language and letter-sound correspondence. In the case of popular songs, nursery rhymes and repeatedly watched cartoons there is the additional advantage of predictable text. The visual and auditory pathways involved in reading are strengthened gradually, subconsciously and incidentally, as a by-product of watching content that the child has an inherent motivation to watch.
Does SLS cause automatic reading engagement among good and struggling readers?
d’Ydewalle et al.’s (1991) eye-tracking research found that American subjects watching an English movie with SLS and Dutch subjects watching a Dutch movie with SLS, spent considerable time in the subtitle area. Reading SLS was inevitable and comparable for both groups, even though the Dutch subjects had much more experience with subtitles on TV. Reading SLS did not depend much on habit formation.
Several other studies have confirmed that reading along with SLS is inescapable, but the subjects have almost always been good readers. Hence, the critical question is, would struggling readers, especially those from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, also try and engage automatically with SLS?
PlanetRead (2018) completed an eye-tracking study of government school children in Grades 2-5 in rural Rajasthan, India, by showing them animated stories with and without SLS. It is an understatement that the subjects were struggling readers from low-income families. Most children (94%) engaged with SLS, exhibiting an increasing number of eye-fixations on the subtitles, with grade. The story at a ‘low’ level of reading difficulty (81 simple words/min) invited the most reading engagement, followed by the ‘medium’ one (82 words/min), but SLS was mostly ignored in the ‘high’ difficulty story (111 words/min).
The primary conclusion is that almost all viewers who are beginning, struggling or good readers, will automatically engage with SLS. SLS just cannot be ignored.
Does SLS exposure lead to improved reading skills?
The idea of leveraging Closed-Captioning (CC) on TV to enhance the reading skills of struggling readers, is as old as CC itself (Koskinen et al., 1986) but longitudinal studies are few. Linebarger et al. (2010) commented on one such by Koskinen et al. (1997): “In a longitudinal study of continuous caption use in the home, children who viewed with captions scored significantly higher on normative tests of word identification and passage comprehension when compared with non-caption viewers.”
In Linebarger et al.’s (2010) study with struggling readers in Grades 2-3 from economically disadvantaged urban locations in the US, SLS exposure was limited to just six 30-minute episodes from children’s TV. Still, “The majority of outcomes… indicated that children who viewed with captions outperformed their counterparts who viewed without captions,” and the improvement was most pronounced among children at risk for poor reading outcomes.
Similarly, in New Zealand, Parkhill & Johnson (2009) found that in their six-week ‘AVAILLL’ programme for children aged 5-13 years, which uses popular, subtitled movies and accompanying novels to engage students in reading literacy, the greatest gains occurred for ‘low-progress’ readers. A positive impact was also observed for average and higher-level readers.
A number of longitudinal studies have come out of the SLS project in India. Kothari and Bandyopadhyay (2014) evaluated the impact of SLS after sustaining it for 5 years on a weekly hour-long programme of Hindi film songs telecast nationally in prime time. Among school children who could not read a single letter in Hindi at the baseline (2002), 70% in the high-SLS viewing group became functional readers by the endline (2007) as compared to 34% in the low-SLS group. In the 15+ age group, 14% in the high-SLS and 5% in the low-SLS group went from non-decoding to functional-reading. Adults gained too but children benefited substantially more in what can be described as a schooling + SLS effect.
Given the SLS project’s goal of persuading broadcast policy in India to require SLS on all the film songs shown on TV in India, in every language, a maximum SLS exposure of an hour a week, albeit for 5 years, was still too little. That was addressed in Maharashtra state where, for 2 years, SLS had a strong broadcast presence on around 20 Marathi films per week (only the songs were subtitled) on two of the most popular Marathi channels (Kothari and Bandyopadhyay, 2015). The Gujarat (control) and Maharashtra samples were comparable at the baseline (2013). By the endline (2015), in Maharashtra, 68% in Grade 3 could read at Grade 1 level or better as compared to 43% in Gujarat.
The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) independently found that over the same 2-year period, Maharashtra outperformed all states – 9% more children in Grade 5 were able to read a Grade 2 level text, as compared to no gain nationally. Among those who got regular SLS exposure, 30% more children in the early grades achieved basic reading ability. The impact of SLS on reading skills was considerably stronger for children in Grades 2-3. A separate study of SLS on TV in Gujarat state confirms its value on film songs for reading literacy (Kothari et al., 2004). What about SLS on children’s TV?
Universally, children love to watch cartoons. PlanetRead (2018a) found that struggling readers cannot but attend to SLS on animated stories. Does that contribute to reading skills? Linebarger et al. (2010) and Linebarger (2001) provide evidence that it does, while underscoring the importance of captions, “especially for children who might not have access to print.”
PlanetRead (2018b) conducted a year-long study in 10 primary schools in rural Delhi serving children in Grades 1-5 from low-income families. In 5 treatment schools, the teachers showed all the children in Grades 1-4, 30 minutes of animated stories in Hindi with SLS, three times a week. From a comparable starting point, the average reading score in the treatment schools was 70% higher than the control schools. The impact of the intervention on reading was most apparent in Grades 2-3, pointing again to the strong complementarity of SLS, during the early stages of reading acquisition.
The benefits of SLS or CC are not limited to reading literacy. For an overview of the range of benefits attributable to SLS – including reading, media access and language acquisition – see Gernsbacher (2015).
Does Same Language Subtitling improve reading skills in developed world markets as well as developing world ones?
Evidence of positive learning outcomes can be found in many studies covering various locations and socioeconomic circumstances:
Linebarger, D., Piotrowski, J. T., & Greenwood, C. R. (2010). On-screen print: The role of captions as a supplemental literacy tool. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(2), 148–167.
“Children were randomly assigned to view videos with or without closed captions. Captions helped children recognise and read more words, identify the meaning of those words, generate inferences regarding programme content and transfer these skills to a normative code‐related skill task.”
Linebarger, D. L. (2001). Learning to read from television: The effects of using captions and narration. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 288–298.
“The present study indicated that beginning readers recognize more words when they view television that uses captions… the combination of captions and sound helped children identify the critical story elements in the video clips… In sum, television captions, by evoking efforts to read, appeared to help a child focus on central story elements.”
Eye-tracking research at the University at Nottingham confirms that subtitles will be read: BISSON, M., VAN HEUVEN, W., CONKLIN, K., & TUNNEY, R. (2014). Processing of native and foreign language subtitles in films: An eye-tracking study. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(2), 399-418.
Bisson is now at De Monfort University, Leicester: https://www.dmu.ac.uk/about-dmu/academic-staff/health-and-life-sciences/marie-josee-bisson/marie-josee-bisson.aspx. The others are at the University of Nottingham.
New Zealand and Australia
Parkhill, Faye and Davey, Ronnie. ‘I used to read one page in two minutes and now I am reading ten’: Using popular film subtitles to enhance literacy outcomes [online]. Literacy Learning: The Middle Years, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 2014: 28-33.
“A series of New Zealand studies and one in Australia indicate that, by using subtitles of popular movies and associated literacy activities, both reading achievement and engagement are enhanced, particularly for diverse and low achieving students. Same language subtitling (SLS) appears to evoke unavoidable reading mileage where reading skills are practised subconsciously (Banks, 2012).”
Canada and France
Baltova, I., 1999. Multisensory Language Teaching in a Multidimensional Curriculum: The Use of Authentic Bimodal Video in Core French. Canadian Modern Language Review 56 (1), 32-48.
Nicolas Guichon, Sinead Mclornan. The effects of multimodality on L2 learners: Implications for CALL resource design. System, Elsevier, 2008, 36 (1), pp.85-93.
“The results indicate that comprehension improves when learners are exposed to a text in several modalities. In addition, they suggest that L2 subtitling [SLS] is more beneficial than L1 [translation subtitling] because it causes less lexical interference.”
Birulés-Muntané J., Soto-Faraco S (2016). Watching Subtitled Films Can Help Learning Foreign Languages. PLoS ONE 11(6)
“The results of the listening skills tests revealed that after watching the English subtitled version [of English content], participants improved these skills significantly more than after watching the Spanish subtitled or no-subtitles versions.”
One of the main factors behind the good PISA reading results in Finland is attributed by Pirjo Sinko, Finnish National Board of Education, to: “Foreign TV programmes not dubbed but have subtitles – improves children’s reading routine.”:
See Book Development of literacy in kindergarten and primary school
“Alongside the overall finding that children’s reading skills contribute to the frequency of their out-of-school reading, a bidirectional prospective impact was also found between reading and reading habits: the higher the amount of book reading, and the more likely children were to read TV subtitles, the better word chain reading they showed later on.”
This summary has been authored by Prof. Brij Kothari, Centre for Educational Innovation at the Indian Institute of Management (Ahmedabad), with input from Marion Macgillivray-Harrison from ITV, UK.
d’Ydewalle, G., Praet, C., Verfaillie, K., & Rensbergen, J. V. (1991). Watching Subtitled Television: Automatic Reading Behavior. Communication Research, 18(5), 650–666.
d’Ydewalle, G., & Van Rensbergen, J. (1989). Developmental studies of text-picture interactions in the perception of animated cartoons with text. In H. Mandl & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Advances in psychology, 58. Knowledge acquisition from text and pictures (pp. 233-248). Oxford, England: North-Holland.
Gernsbacher, Morton Ann. “Video Captions Benefit Everyone” Policy insights from the behavioral and brain sciences vol. 2,1 (2015): 195-202. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290395991_Video_Captions_Benefit_Everyone.
Koskinen, P.S., Bowen, C.T., Gambrell, L.B., Jensema, C.J. & Kane, K.W. (1997). Captioned television and literacy development: Effects of home viewing on learning disabled students. Paper presented at the Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.
Koskinen, P. S., Wilson, R. M., Gambrell, L. B., & Jensema, C. J. (1986). Using closed captioned television to enhance reading skills of learning disabled students. National Reading Conference Yearbook, 35, 61-65.
Kothari, B., & Bandyopadhyay, T. (2014). Same language subtitling of Bollywood songs on TV: Effects on literacy. Information Technologies & International Development, 10(4), 31–47.
Kothari, B. & Bandyopadhyay, T. (2015). An innovation to raise a nation’s reading skills: Scale up of Same Language Subtitling (SLS) on Zee in Maharashtra, https://www.planetread.org/images/pdf/research/Impact%20of%20SLS%20scale%20up%20in%20Maharashtra%20on%20Zee%20Talkies%202015.pdf.
See also https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/what-caused-maharashtras-leap-in-reading_us_589d1277e4b0e172783a9a8f..
Kothari, B., Pandey, A., & Chudgar, A. (2004). Reading out of the “idiot box”: Same-language subtitling on television in India. Information Technologies & International Development, 2(1), 23–44.
Linebarger, D., Piotrowski, J. T., & Greenwood, C. R. (2010). On-screen print: The role of captions as a supplemental literacy tool. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(2), 148-167.
Parkhill, F., & Johnson, J. (2009). An unexpected breakthrough for rapid reading improvement: AVAILLL uses movies so students read it, see it and get it. set: Research Information for Teachers, 1, 28−34.
PlanetRead (2018a). AniBooks: Scalable and likeable, but readable? https://www.planetread.org/pdf/Eye%20Tracking%20Study%20of%20AniBooks%20Draft%20Report%20(June%202018).pdf.
PlanetRead (2018b). AniBooks for early-grade reading. https://www.planetread.org/pdf/AniBooks%20for%20EGR%20PlanetRead.pdf.
Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad by Professor Brij Kothari : “Based on an Indian Institute of Management study of 2,350 children, 34% became good readers with schooling alone. But when exposed to 30 minutes a week of subtitled film songs, that proportion more than doubled to 70%.” https://itidjournal.org/index.php/itid/article/download/1307/1307-3628-2-PB.pdf
Price, Karen (1983). Closed-Captioned TV. An Untapped Resource. MATSOL Newsletter 12.2, 1 and 8.
Vanderplank, Robert (1988). The value of teletext sub-titles in language learning. ELT Journal 42.4, 272-281.
Markham, Paul L. (1989). The Effects of Captioned Television Videotapes on the Listening Comprehension of Beginning, Intermediate, and Advanced Students. Educational Technology 29.10, 38-41.
Neuman, Susan B. & Koskinen, Patricia (1990). Using Captioned Television To Improve the Reading Proficiency of Language Minority Students. Falls Church, VA: The National Captioning Institute,Inc.
Vanderplank, Robert (1990). Paying Attention to the Words. Practical and Theoretical Problems in Watching Television Programmes with Uni-Lingual (Ceefax) Sub-Titles. System 18.2, 221-234.
Garza, Thomas J. (1991). Evaluating the Use of Captioned Video Materials in Advanced Foreign Language Learning. Foreign Language Annals 24.3, 239-258.
Danan, Martine. (1992). Reversed Subtitling and Dual Coding Theory. Language Learning 42.4, 497-527.
Neuman, Susan B. & Koskinen, Patricia (1992). Captioned television as comprehensible input. Effects of incidental word learning from context for language minority students. Reading Research Quarterly 27.1, 95-106. (See also Klingner 1993 and Neuman & Koskinen 1993!)
Seriwong, Somjai (1992). A Pilot Study on the Effects of Closed-Captioned Television on English as a Second Language Students’ Listening Comprehension. Ph.D. Thesis: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.
Smith, Eric E. & Shen, Chung-wei (1992). The Effects of Knowledge of Results Feedback of Captioning on Listening Comprehension of English as a Second Language in Interactive Videodisc System. In: Simonson, Michael R. & Jurasek, Karen A. (eds.), 14th Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations at the 1992 Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University, 718-742.
Vanderplank, Robert (1992). Non-native speaker viewers’ use of teletext sub-titles in English. Some exploratory studies. In: Davies, Graham & Hussey, Michael (eds.), New Technology in Language Learning. Proceedings of the 1989 Man and the Media Symposium. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 89-102.
Markham, P. L. (1992/1993). Captioned Television Videotapes. Effects of Visual Support on Second Language Comprehension. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 21.3, 183-191.
Hirose, Keiko & Kamei, Setsuko (1993). Effects of English Captions in Relation to Learner Proficiency Level and Type of Information. Language Laboratory 30, 1-16.
Klingner, Janette Kettmann (1993). Commentary: Comprehensible comments on Neuman and Koskinen (1992). Reading Research Quarterly 28.4, 377-382.
Neuman, Susan B. & Koskinen, Patricia (1993). On forests and trees: A response to Klingner. Reading Research Quarterly 28.4, 383-385.
Borrás, Isabel & Lafayette, Robert C. (1994). Effects of Multimedia Courseware Subtitling on the Speaking Performance of College Students of French. Modern Language Journal 78.1, 61-75.
Kamei, Setsuko & Hirose, Keiko (1994). Multimedia Effects on L2 Comprehension in Relation to English Learner Proficiency Level. Language Laboratory 31, 1-17. (In Japanese with English abstract)
Ogasawara, Shinji (1994). Effectiveness of Using English Captioned Videos on Listening Comprehension Proficiency. Bulletin of the Faculty of Liberal Arts, Nagasaki University (Humanities) 35.1, 103-114.
Shang-Ikeda, Sophia (1994). Using Captions Increases Comprehension. JALT Journal 16.1, 83-89.
Weasenforth, Donald L. (1994). Closed Captioning. Students’ Responses. ERIC Document #ED370434 (https://eric.ed.gov).
Chiquito, Ana Beatriz (1995). Metacognitive Learning Techniques in the User Interface. Advance Organizers and Captioning. Computers and the Humanities 28, 211-223.
Shizuka, Tetsuhito (1995). Whether, When, and How to Utilize the Printed Script of a Film. A Good Substitute for L2 Subtitles? IRLT Bulletin 9, 69-95.
Kikuchi, Toshikazu (1996). A Study of the Effects of an English-Captioned Movie on Rapid Reading and Listening Comprehension. Teaching English through Movies – ATEM Journal 2, 34-43. (In Japanese with English abstract)
Koskinen, Patricia S. & Knable, James E. & Markham, Paul L. & Jensema, Carl J. & Kane, Kathryn W. (1995/96). Captioned Television and the Vocabulary Acquisition of Adult Second Language Correctional Facility Residents. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 24.4, 359-373.
Obari, Hiroyuki (1996). A Cross-Sectional Study of Effectiveness on Listening Comprehension of the Use of Japanese Subtitled and English Captioned Videos. Teaching English through Movies – ATEM Journal 2, 11-22. (InJapanese with English abstract)
Zamoon, Sarah Rose (1996). Closed captioned television. A perceived means to self-help in second language learning. MA Thesis: Iowa State University, Ames.
Chung, Jing-Mei (1996/1997). The Effects of Using Advance Organizers and Captions to Introduce Video in the Foreign Language Classroom. TESL Canada Journal 14.1, 61-65.
Guillory, Helen Gant (1998). The Effects of Keyword Captions to Authentic French Video on Learner Comprehension. CALICO Journal 15.1-3, 89-108.
Kadoyama, Teruhiko (1998). Combined Use of English and Japanese Subtitles in Film Videos. An Attempt to Make Closed Captions More Accessible to Learners. ARELE – Annual Review of English Language Education in Japan 9, 53-63.
Kikuchi, Toshikazu (1998). A Preliminary Study of Key-Word English Captions. Teaching English through Movies – ATEM Journal 4, 3-13. (In Japanese with English abstract)
Yoshida, Haruyo & Uematsu, Shigeo & Yoshida, Shinsuke & Takeuchi, Osamu (1998). Modalities of Subtitling and Foreign Language Learning. Language Laboratory Association Journal of Kansai Chapter 7, 49-63.
Baltova, Iva (1999). The Effect of Subtitled and Staged Video Input on the Learning and Retention of Content and Vocabulary in a Second Language. Ph.D. Thesis: University of Toronto.
Chung, Jing-mei (1999). The Effects of Using Video Texts Supported with Advance Organizers and Captions on Chinese College Students’ Listening Comprehension. An Empirical Study. Foreign Language Annals 32.3, 295-308.
Kang, Hoo-Dong (1999). The effects of a caption-viewing strategy on students with limited listening proficiency. Foreign Languages Education 6, 297-323. (In Korean with English abstract)
Kikuchi, Toshikazu (1999). A Preliminary Study of the Effectiveness of Key-Word English Captions on Listening Comprehension. Memoirs of Numazu College of Technology 33, 135-146. (In Japanese with English abstract)
Li, Suk Fong (1999). The use of film subtitles in teaching English to the junior form students. MA Thesis: University of Hong Kong.
Markham, Paul (1999). Captioned Videotapes and Second-Language Listening Word Recognition. Foreign Language Annals 32.3, 321-328.
Baltova, Iva (1999/2000). Multisensory Language Teaching in a Multidimensional Curriculum. The Use of Authentic Bimodal Video in Core French. Canadian Modern Language Review 56.1, 31-48.
Huang, Hsin-Chuan & Eskey, David E. (1999/2000). The Effects of Closed-Captioned Television on the Listening Comprehension of Intermediate English As a Second Language (ESL) Students. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 28.1, 75-96.
Lee, Soo-Kil (2000). How to Improve English Ability through Closed Captioning. English Language Teaching (Pan-Korea English Teachers Association) 12.2, 47-64.
Liversidge, Gordon (2000). Multimedia Texts. A Validation Survey of Learners’ Perspectives of Captioning. Otsuma Women’s University Annual Report, Humanities and Social Sciences 32, 79-93.
Liversidge, Gordon Barry (2000). The Role of Closed Captioning in Second Language Acquisition. Ed.D. Thesis: Temple University Japan.
Shea, Peter (2000). Leveling the Playing Field. A Study of Captioned Interactive Video for Second Language Learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research 22.3, 243-263.
Suh, Chun-Soo & Kang, Hoo-Dong (2000). BCR Effect and Caption Presentation Rate to Students with Limited Listening Proficiency. English Language Teaching (Pan-Korea English Teachers Association) 12.2, 1-25.
Yoshino, Shiho & Kano, Noriko (2000). The Effects of the L1 and L2 Caption Presentation Timing on Listening Comprehension. In: Bourdeau, Jacqueline & Heller, Rachelle (eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2000. Charlottesville, VA: AACE, 1209-1214.
Yoshino, Shiho & Kano, Noriko & Akahori, Kanji (2000). The Effects of English and Japanese Captions on the Listening Comprehension of Japanese EFL Students. Language Laboratory 37, 111-130.
Markham, Paul (2000/2001). The Influence of Culture-Specific Background Knowledge and Captions on Second Language Comprehension. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 29.4, 331-343.
Markham, Paul L. & Peter, Lizette A. & McCarthy, Teresa J. (2001). The Effects of Native Language vs. Target Language Captions on Foreign Language Students’ DVD Video Comprehension. Foreign Language Annals 34.5, 439-445.
Taura, Hideyuki & Taura, Amanda (2001). Modality Effects on L2 Listening Comprehension Skills through DVD Movies. Journal of Fukui Medical University 2.1/2, 65-70. (In Japanese with English abstract)
Kikuchi, Toshikazu (2002). The Efficacy of Keyword Captions on Listening Comprehension. Teaching English through Movies – ATEM Journal 7, 3-15. (In Japanese with English abstract)
Kikuchi, Toshikazu (2002). An Experiment on the Long-Term Effects of Keyword Captions. Memoirs of Numazu College of Technology 36, 171-180.
Pujolà, Joan-Tomàs (2002). CALLing for help: researching language learning strategies using help facilities in a web-based multimedia program. ReCALL 14.2, 235-262.
Taura, Hideyuki (2002). Effective Use of DVD Movies in the Classroom in Terms of Modality Effects on L2 Listening Skill Improvement. In: Swanson, Malcolm & McMurray, David (eds.), On PAC3 at JALT2001. A Language Odyssey. Tokyo: JALT, 315-327.
Taura, Hideyuki (2002). L1/L2 Modality Effects on Listening Comprehension – Through a Term Long Usage of DVD Movies. Media and Education 8, 103-113. (In Japanese with English abstract)
Markham, Paul & Peter, Lizette (2002/2003). The Influence of English Language and Spanish Language Captions on Foreign Language Listening/Reading Comprehension. Journal of Educational Technology Systems 31.3, 331-341.
Acosta Matos, Héctor A. (2003). The Effects of Closed Captions upon the Listening Comprehension of Students Learning English As a Second Language in an Intermediate School in Puerto Rico. MA Thesis: University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez.
Chang, Suhsun (2003). The Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on the Second Language Listening Comprehension Through the Use of Subtitles. Journal of National Taipei University of Technology 36.1, 151-182.
Hwang, Yan-Ling (2003). The Effect of the Use of Videos Captioning on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) on College Students’ Language Learning in Taiwan. Ph.D. Thesis: University of Mississippi, Oxford.
Kikuchi, Toshikazu (2003). The Efficacy of Keyword Captions on the Improvement of EFL Students’ Listening Comprehension. Memoirs of Numazu College of Technology 37, 193-204.
Wei, Jung-Kuei (2003). The Effect of Meaningful-Making Technology on Learning a Foreign Language. Integrating Video Clips with Two Captioning Modes on a Simulated German-Learning Website. Ed.D. Thesis: Idaho State University, Pocatello.
Çilek, Selahattin (2004). An Applied Study of Close-Captioned Video on Advanced Students of English As Listening Comprehension Material. Master’s Thesis: Selçuk Üniversitesi, Konya.
Elvin, Chris (2004). My Students’ DVD Audio and Subtitle Preferences for Aural English Study. An Action Research Project. Explorations in Teacher Education 12.4, 3-17.
Herbert, Marianne (2004). The Use of DVD in Foreign Language Learning. Strategies used by Learners for Meaning Focused and Form Focused Tasks. BA Thesis: Trinity College Dublin.
Hernandez, Sylvia Sepulveda (2004). The Effects of Video and Captioned Text and the Influence of Verbal and Spatial Abilities on Second Language Listening Comprehension in a Multimedia Learning Environment. Ph.D. Thesis: New York University.
Luo, Jia-Jen (2004). Using DVD Films to Enhance College Frechmen’s English Listening Comprehension and Motivation. Master’s Thesis: National Tsinghua University.
Park, Myongsu (2004). Captioned Cinderella. English Teaching (Korea Association of Teachers of English) 59.4, 325-348.
Park, Myongsu (2004). The Effects of Partial Captions on Korean EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. Ph.D. Thesis: University of Texas at Austin.
Stewart, Melissa A. & Pertusa, Inmaculada (2004). Gains to Language Learners from Viewing Target Language Closed-Captioned Films. Foreign Language Annals 37.3, 438-447. (See also Markham 2005 and Stewart & Pertusa 2005!)
Tsai, Pei-hua (2004). An Analysis of the Effects of Multimedia on English Listening Comprehension of Junior High School Students. Master’s Thesis: National Changhua Normal University.
Uematsu, Shigeo (2004/2005). The Effectiveness of English Captions on English Language Learning Using DVD Movies. Journal of Multimedia Aided Education Research 1.1, 107-114. (In Japanese with English abstract)
Markham, Paul (2005). More on Caption Use. A Response to Stewart and Pertusa. Foreign Language Annals 38.2, 283.
Rozendaal, Christopher Mark (2005). Fluency through Friends. Authentic video, subtitle modification, and oral fluency. MA Thesis: Iowa State University, Ames.
Stewart, Melissa A. & Pertusa, Inmaculada (2005). Responding to Markham’s Comments. Foreign Language Annals 38.2, 284.
Taylor, Gregory (2005). Perceived Processing Strategies of Students Watching Captioned Video. Foreign Language Annals 38.3, 422-427.
Wang, Hui (2005). The Effects of Captions on Chinese EFL Students’ Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Education 4, 47-52. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Yang, Ming-ying (2005). Effects of Captions on Listening Comprehension and Strategy Use by Taiwanese EFL Freshmen. A Case Study. Master’s Thesis: National Changhua University of Education.
Barbosa, Edilene Rodrigues & Pereira, Germana da Cruz (2006). La utilización de películas subtituladas en el desarrollo de la proficiencia oral de alumnos de Lengua Española. In: Actas del Primer Congreso Virtual E/LE. La enseñanza del español en el siglo XXI. Málaga: Ediciones EdiEle.
Caimi, Annamaria (2006). Audiovisual Translation and Language Learning. The Promotion of Intralingual Subtitles. Journal of Specialised Translation 6, 85-98.
Chang, Suhsun (2006). The Interaction Between Schemata and Subtitles. Journal of National Taipei University of Technology 39.1, 209-227.
Cheng, Yong Rui (2006). A Comparative Study of Different Subtitling Formats in Two English News Broadcasts in Taiwan. Master’s Thesis: National Tsinghua University.
Gomes, Francisco Wellington Borges (2006). O Uso de Filmes Legendados como Ferramenta para o Desenvolvimento da Proficiência Oral de Aprendizes de Língua Inglesa. Dissertação de Mestrado: Universidade Estadual do Ceará.
Clausson, David (2007). Subtitles – To be or not to be. A Study of English Listening Comprehension among Swedish Students. BA Thesis: Halmstad University.
Cunha, Tiago Martins da (2007). O Uso de Filmes Legendados e do Ensino Comunicativo de Línguas no Desenvolvimento da Proficiência Oral em Nível Básico de Língua Estrangeira. Dissertação de Mestrado: Universidade Estadual do Ceará.
Grgurovic, Maja & Hegelheimer, Volker (2007). Help Options and Multimedia Listening. Students’ Use of Subtitles and the Transcript. Language Learning & Technology 11.1, 45-66.
Leiva de Izquierdo, Bertha (2007). Los videos subtitulados en inglés: un recurso subutilizado en la lectura del inglés como lengua extranjera (EFL). Estudios de Lingüística Aplicada 45, 81-102.
Tomita, Kaoru (2007). Does Presenting Captions Result in Better Listening Comprehension? JACET Zenkoku Taikai Yoko 46, 36-37.
Wang, Hui (2007). The Effects of Captions on Chinese EFL Students’ Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. CELEA Journal 30.4, 9-16.
Abdellah, Antar S. (2008). Can intralingual subtitling enhance English majors’ listening comprehension of literary texts? Journal of Qena Faculty of Education 11.1.
Araújo, Vera Lúcia Santiago (2008). The educational use of subtitled films in EFL teaching. In: Díaz Cintas, Jorge (ed.), The Didactics of Audiovisual Translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 227-238.
Bianchi, Francesca & Ciabattoni, Tiziana (2008). Captions and Subtitles in EFL Learning. An investigative study in a comprehensive computer environment. In: Baldry, Anthony & Pavesi, Maria & Torsello, Carol Taylor & Taylor, Christopher (eds.), From Didactas to Ecolingua. An Ongoing Research Project on Translation and Corpus Linguistics. Trieste: Edizioni Università di Trieste, 69-90.
Bravo, Maria da Conceição Condinho (2008). Putting the Reader in the Picture. Screen Translation and Foreign-Language Learning. Ph.D. Thesis: Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
Chai, Judy & Erlam, Rosemary (2008). The Effect and the Influence of the Use of Video and Captions on Second Language Learning. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics 14.2, 25-44.
Guichon, Nicolas & McLornan, Sinead (2008). The effects of multimodality on L2 learners. Implications for CALL resource design. System 36.1, 85-93.
Özgen, Mehmet (2008). The Use of Authentic Captioned Video As Listening Comprehension Material in English Language Teaching. MA Thesis: Selçuk Universitesi, Konya.
Oliveira Filho, Luiz de (2008). Utilização da legendagem intralingüística no desenvolvimento da proficiência oral em língua francesa. Dissertação de Mestrado: Universidade Estadual do Ceará.
Shalmani, Hamed Babaie (2008). On the Effects of Help Options in MCALL Programs on the Listening Comprehension of EFL Learners. Journal of Teaching English Language and Literature Society of Iran 2.6, 27-47.
Specker, Elizabeth A. (2008). L1/L2 Eye Movement Reading of Closed Captioning. A Multimodal Analysis of Multimodal Use. Ph.D. Thesis: University of Arizona.
Uehara, Keiko & Minegishi, Kazuya & Oguma, Kazuhiro & Yamazaki, Kaoru & Akaiwa, Toshinori (2008). Using English Films with English Subtitles to Develop English Proficiency of College Students Traning to Be English Teachers. Journal of Teaching Methodology, Gunma University 7, 79-94.
Wu, Taiwei (2008). Advance Organziers and Subtitles on College Students’ Listening Performance. Master’s Thesis: National Pingtung University of Education.
Gibbs, Charles (2009). Learner-
Haghverdi, Hamid Reza & Vaezi, Mohammed Nasser (n.d.) . The Impact of English and Persian Movie Subtitle on the Listening Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners.
Harvey, Myrcea Santiago dos Santos (2009). O uso didático do gênero filme legendado na aprendizagem de leitura de textos do gênero jornalístico/noticioso em inglês. Um estudo com alunos de uma escola pública de Fortaleza. Dissertação de Mestrado: Universidade Estadual do Ceará.
Mitterer, Holger & McQueen, James M. (2009). Foreign Subtitles Help but Native-Language Subtitles Harm Foreign Speech Perception. PLoS ONE 4.11, e7785.
Qiu, Xue-lin (2009). Movie Captions and Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. Journal of Shunde Polytechnic 7.3, 63-65. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Tsai, Chia-jung (n.d.) . Insight into Learners’ Perspectives on Watching Movies with L1 vs. L2 Subtitles.
Tsai, Chia-jung & Huang, Shenghui Cindy (n.d.) . Target Language Subtitles for Comprehensible Film Language Input.
Yuksel, Dogan & Tanriverdi, Belgin (2009). Effects of Watching Captioned Movie Clip on Vocabulary Development of EFL Learners. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology 8.2, 48-54.
Zarei, Abbas Ali (2009). The Effect of Bimodal, Standard, and Reversed Subtitling on L2 Vocabulary Recognition and Recall. Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji 49, 65-84.
Alameen, Ghinwa (2010). The Role of Video Subtitling in Listening Comprehension. In: Levis, John M. & LeVelle, Kimberly (eds.), Technology for Oral Communication. Ames: Iowa State University, 28-39.
Alkhatnai, Mubarak (2010). The Effect of TV Captions on the Comprehension of Non-Native Saudi Learners of English. In: ICT for Language Learning Conference 2010. Proceedings; reprinted 2012 in: Sino-US English Teaching 9.10, 1573-1579.
Bravo, Conceição (2010). Text on screen and text on air. A useful tool for foreign language teachers and learners. In: Díaz Cintas, Jorge & Matamala, Anna & Neves, Josélia (eds.), New Insights into Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility. Media for All 2. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 269-283.
Harji, Madhubala Bava & Woods, Peter Charles & Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal (2010). The Effect Of Viewing Subtitled Videos On Vocabulary Learning. Journal of College Teaching & Learning 7.9, 37-42.
Hayati, Majid A. & Mohmedi, Firooz (2010). The Effect of Films With and Without Subtitles on Listening Comprehension of EFL Intermediate Students. International Journal of Instructional Media 37.3, 301-313.
Hsu, Ching-Kun & Chang, Chih-Kai (2010). Effects of Automatic Hidden Caption Classification on a Content-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning System for Foreign Language Listening. In: Wong, S. L. & Kong, S. C. & Yu, F. Y. (eds.), Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education. Putrajaya: APSCE, 236-243.
Hwang, Yanling & Huang, Pei-Wen (2010). The Effects of Video Captioning on L2 Learners’ Listening Comprehension. Journal of National Huwei University of Science and Technology 29.2, 95-107.
Kent, Heidi B. (2010). The Efficacy of Enhanced Subtitles plus Explicit Grammatical Instruction on the Acquisition of L2 Grammatical Structures. In: Cooper, Angela et al. (eds.), Simon Fraser University Working Papers. Vol. 3. Proceedings of the 26th Northwest Linguistics Conference. Burnaby: Simon Fraser University.
Markham, Paul L. & Willis, Sheree & Hsu, Connie (2010). Chinese Captions and Foreign Language (Mandarin) Comprehension. Issues in Information Systems 11.2, 219-224.
Selim, Aysha Abdel-Moneim (2010). The Effect of Using Same Language Subtitling (SLS) in Content Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition in Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL). Master’s Thesis: American University in Cairo.
Sydorenko, Tetyana (2010). Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition. Language Learning & Technology 14.2, 50-73.
Tsai, Feng-Hung (Will) (2010). Integrating Feature Films with Subtitles to Enhance the Listening Comprehension of Students Attending College in Taiwan. Ed.D. Thesis: Alliant International University.
Winke, Paula & Gass, Susan & Sydorenko, Tetyana (2010). The Effects of Captioning Videos Used for Foreign Language Listening Activities. Language Learning & Technology 14.1, 66-87.
Wong, Po Shan (2010). The effectiveness of learning vocabulary through English news subtitles. A case study with Hong Kong ESL learners. MA Thesis: University of Hong Kong.
Yang, Jie Chi & Chang, Chia Ling & Lin, Yi Lung & Shih, Mei Jen Audrey (2010). A Study of the POS Keyword Caption Effect on Listening Comprehension. In: Wong, S. L. & Kong, S. C. & Yu, F. Y. (eds.), Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education. Putrajaya: APSCE, 708-712.
Chen, Hao-Jan Howard (2011). Developing and evaluating SynctoLearn, a fully automatic video and transcript synchronization tool for EFL learners. Computer Assisted Language Learning 24.2, 117-130.
Ghorbani, Mohammad Reza (2011). Watching Cartoons With Subtitles Improves Children’s Foreign Language Acquisition. US-China Foreign Language 9.4, 241-246.
Hayati, Abdolmajid & Mohmedi, Firooz (2011). The effect of films with and without subtitles on listening comprehension of EFL learners. British Journal of Educational Technology 42.1, 181-192.
Hwang, Yanling & Huang, Peiwen (2011). Using Subtitles to Enliven Reading. English Language and Literature Studies 1.1, 2-6.
Latifi, Mehdi & Mobalegh, Ali & Mohammadi, Elham (2011). Movie Subtitles and the Improvement of Listening Comprehension Ability. Does it help? Journal of Language Teaching and Learning 1.2, 18-29.
Lavaur, Jean-Marc & Bairstow, Dominique (2011). Languages on the screen. Is film comprehension related to the viewers’ fluency level and to the language in the subtitles? International Journal of Psychology 46.6, 455-462.
Nagira, Yuri (2011). Vocabulary Learning through Captions. International Proceedings of Economics Development and Research 26, 95-99.
Roohani, Ali & Rabiei, Somayeh (2011). Effect of Watching Movies with Bimodal, Standard and No-Subtitles on Incidental Learning of Formal and Informal Vocabulary. Journal of Research in Applied Linguistics 2.2, 100-118.
Rooney, Kevin M. (2011). Impact of Keyword Caption Ratio, Language Proficiency, and Attitude on Foreign Language Listening Comprehension. Ph.D. Thesis: Capella University.
Tsai, Shiao-Ling (2011). The Effects of Viewing Subtitles of English Cartoon Videos on Taiwanese Fifth Graders’ English Listening Comprehension. Master’s Thesis: Chaoyang University of Technology.
Zarei, Abbas Ali & Rashvand, Zohreh (2011). The Effect of Interlingual and Intralingual, Verbatim and Nonverbatim Subtitles on L2 Vocabulary Comprehension and Production. Journal of Language Teaching and Research 2.3, 618-625.
Zarei, Abbasali & Saddeghi, Mahsa (2011). The effects of synchronous and asynchronous interlingual and intralingual transcript presentation on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production. Teaching English Language (Journal of Teaching English Language and Literature Society of Iran) 5.1, 101-123.
Ahangari, Saeideh & Amini, Shima Mohammad (2012). The Impact of Films with and without Subtitles on Iranian EFL Learners’ Mastery of Lexical Phrases. American Journal of Scientific Research 69, 68-80.
Alipour, Mohammad & Gorjian, Bahman & Kouravand, Lida Gholampour (2012). The effects of pedagogical and authentic films on EFL learners’ vocabulary learning. The role of subtitles. Advances in Asian Social Science3.4, 734-738.
Bairstow, Dominique (2012). Rôle des sous-titres dans la compréhension et la mémorisation de films. Thèse de doctorat: Université Paul Valéry – Montpellier III.
Bairstow, Dominique & Lavaur, Jean-Marc (2012). Audiovisual Information Processing by Monolinguals and Bilinguals. Effects of Intralingual and Interlingual Subtitles. In: Remael, Aline & Orero, Pilar & Carroll, Mary (eds.), Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility at the Crossroads. Media for All 3. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 273-293.
Chen, Mei-Ling (2012). Effects of the Order of Reading Text or Viewing a Film and L1/L2 Captions on Reading Comprehension. Perceptual & Motor Skills 115.1, 18-26.
Chiu, Ti-Kai & Hsieh, Tung-Cheng & Lee, Ming-Che & Chang, Jia-Wei & Wang, Tzone-I (2012). Using Controllable Partial Subtitles and Interactive Features in Educational Videos. International Journal of Information and Education Technology 2.4, 364-366.
Etemadi, Aida (2012). Effects of Bimodal Subtitling of English Movies on Content Comprehension and Vocabulary Recognition. International Journal of English Linguistics 2.1, 239-248.
Ghasemboland, Farimah & Nafissi, Zohreh (2012). The Effects of Using English Captions on Iranian EFL Students’ Listening Comprehension. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 64, 105-112.
Ho, Chao-Hsiang (2012). Taiwan EFL Learners’ Attitudes toward Films with English Subtitle in Language Learning. A Case Study of University Freshmen. Master’s Thesis: Tamkang University, New Taipei City.
Hu, Yongjin (2012). An Empirical Research Testing the Effects of Multimodality on English Listening Teaching. In: IEEE (ed.), 2012 First National Conference for Engineering Sciences (FNCES 2012). New York: IEEE, 1449-1451.
Karakas, Ali & Sariçoban, Arif (2012). The Impact of Watching Subtitled Animated Cartoons on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of ELT Students. Teaching English with Technology 12.4, 3-15. (See also Bogdanov 2013!)
Leveridge, Aubrey Neil & Yang, Jie Chi (2012). Affective States Arising from the Removal of Captioning Support in EFL Multimedia Environments. In: Biswas, Gautam & Wong, Lung-Hsiang & Hirashima, Tsukasa & Chen, Wenli (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computers in Education ICCE 2012. Singapore: APSCE/National Institute of Education, 628-632.
Li, Chen-Hong (2012). Are They Listening Better? Supporting EFL College Students’ DVD Video Comprehension With Advance Organizers In A Multimedia English Course. Journal of College Teaching & Learning 9.4, 277-288.
Li, Mingyue (2012). L1, L2 and L1+L2 subtitles in videos in L2 classroom settings. An investigation of teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards the use of L1, L2 and L1+L2 subtitles in the L2 classroom. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
Liang, Eleen (2012). Using English Animated Cartoons on English Learning. Master’s Thesis: Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan City.
Pak, Hubert H. (2012). The Effect of Films with and without Subtitles on Vocabulary Acquisition Scores of Foreign Language Learners. Using a Korean Sit-com, Unhindered High-Kick. STEM Journal 13.3, 17-31.
Peng, Li-Wei (2012). The Impacts of DVD Films on EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. MA Thesis: Ming Chuan University, Taipei.
Raine, Paul (2012). Incidental learning of vocabulary through subtitled authentic videos. MA Thesis: University of Birmingham.
Seo, Jiyoung & Lee, Donghan (2012). The role of language play in awareness-raising tasks. Using captions from Desperate Housewives. STEM Journal 13.1, 57-80. (In Korean with English abstract)
Taghavi, Mehdi & Sabet, Masoud Khalili & Zafarghandi, Amir Mahdavi (2012). The Effect of Captioned Brief News on Iranian Secondary Students’ Vocabulary Learning. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research 3.11.
Wang, Yu-Chia (2012). Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama. From the Learner’s Perspective. English Language Teaching 5.8, 217-225.
Yang, Wen-Ting (2012). Application of the Task-Based Approach in English Listening Class by Watching Films for EFL Elementary School Learners. Master’s Thesis: Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan City.
Yekta, Razieh Rabbani & Ketabi, Saeed & Tavakoli, Mansoor (2012). Change of the state representation of words in viewing instantaneous speech texts. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 22.1, 88-104.
Yoon, Sangdon & Ahn, Deokgyu (2012). The effect of film with or without subtitles on learners’ vocabulary enhancement in Korea. Using subtitles from Aladdin, The Little Mermaid and The Lion King. STEM Journal 13.3, 73-87. (In Korean with English abstract)
Ahn, Miri (2013). The Impact of Subtitled Online Video Clips on Incidental Vocabulary Learning. STEM Journal 14.2, 135-151.
Aldera, Abdullah S. & Mohsen, Mohammed Ali (2013). Annotations in captioned animation. Effects on vocabulary learning and listening skills. Computers & Education 68, 60-75.
Araújo, Felipe Roberto & Barbosa, Edilene Rodrigues (2013). O uso de legendas como suporte para a compreensão leitora no ensino e aprendizagem de Espanhol Como Língua Estrangeira. In: Carvalho, Tatiana Lourenço de & Barbosa, Edilene Rodrigues & Irineu, Lucineudo Machado (eds.), Espanhol na universidade. Pesquisas em língua e em literatura. Mossoró: Edições UERN, 111-124.
Aurstad, Lisa Maria Grønn (2013). The Role of Subtitles in Second Language Acquisition. An experimental study in the context of the Norwegian school system. Master’s Thesis: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.
Basaran, Hülya Felek & Köse, Gül Durmusoglu (2013). The effects of captioning on EFL learners’ listening comprehension. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 70, 702-708.
Basaran, Suleyman & Dilber, Eyup (2013). Effects of Captioned TV Shows on Language Learner Motivation and Perception. Respectus Philologicus 23, 83-96.
Bogdanov, Stan (2013). One-Time Treatment for Incidental Vocabulary Learning. Call for Discontinuation. A commentary on Ali Karakas and Arif Sariçoban’s ‘The impact of watching subtitled animated cartoons on incidental vocabulary learning of ELT students’. Teaching English with Technology 13.2, 75-82.
Dong, Jian-qiao & Zhou, Ya-jing & Liu, Gui-ru (2013). Perceptual Load and Selective Attention in Multimedia English Videos Watching. The Effect of Keyword Captions on Video Comprehension. Computer-
Dooley, Morgan William (2013). How Movie Subtitles Influence EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension. Journal of Applied English 6, 51-66.
Ferdiansyah, Veri & Nakagawa, Seiichi (2013). Effect of Captioning Lecture Videos For Learning in Foreign Language. IPSJ SIG Technical Report 2013-SLP-97 No. 13.
He, Yanhong (Minnie) (2013). The Effect of Subtitled Movies on Listening Comprehension of Chinese College Students of Low Proficiency. MSc Thesis: University of Wisconsin-Platteville.
Hsu, Ching-Kun & Hwang, Gwo-Jen & Chang, Yu-Tzu & Chang, Chih-Kai (2013). Effects of Video Caption Modes on English Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition Using Handheld Devices. Educational Technology & Society 16.1, 403-414.
Hu, Jian & Huang, Lin (2013). Subtitles and Chinese EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition. International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications 7.4, 359-368.
Hu, Yongjin & Zhang, Delu (2013). An experimental study on the function of multimodality in teaching listening to English majors. Foreign Language World 5, 20-25 and 44. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Kovacs, Geza (2013). Smart Subtitles for Language Learning. In: Mackay, Wendy E. (ed.), CHI ’13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: ACM, 2719-2724.
Kruger, Jan-Louis (2013). Subtitles in the classroom: balancing the benefits of dual coding with the cost of increased cognitive load. Journal for Language Teaching – Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig 47.1, 29-53.
Kruger, Jan-Louis & Hefer, Esté & Matthew, Gordon (2013). Measuring the Impact of Subtitles on Cognitive Load. Eye Tracking and Dynamic Audiovisual Texts. In: Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Eye Tracking South Africa. New York: ACM, 62-66.
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Rowell, Jordan (2016). Integrating Francophone Cinema into the High School French Class. In: McCoy, Leah P. (ed.): Studies in Teaching. 2016 Research Digest. Winston-Salem: Wake Forest University, 31-36.
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